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    中頻爐怎樣安裝調試?

    1. 安裝前的準備工作

      安裝前,必須檢查所有成套裝置的組成部分,爐子的主要部件及其安裝材料是否齊全,并檢查它們的狀況。一些部件和材料因運輸和保管不當而產生的缺陷,應予修復,使所有設備、部件、相應的材料及零件配套完好無缺,以確保以后的安裝、調試工作的順利進行。

    除此外,對和爐子設備有關的各項土建設施進行檢查驗收,如核對平面布置中的主要尺寸是否正確;檢查各種電氣設備和主母線安裝所需的基礎、地溝及預埋件是否符合設計要求,爐子基礎、平臺標高、縱軸和橫軸的偏差、地腳螺絲釘位置等是否在規定的尺寸范圍之內;檢查基地及平臺的施工質量等是否符合要求。只有在上述準備工作完成后,才能進行爐子的安裝調試工作。

    二、爐子及電氣設備的安裝調試

    1. 爐體的安裝

      爐體的安裝程序在圖紙上均有規定。首先是在平的基地上安裝爐架,然后安裝爐油缸、爐體,如有稱重裝置,則應根據圖紙要求安裝在規定的位置上。爐子的支架(對于坩堝式中頻爐包括固定支架和活動支架兩部分)及爐體部分,在加工過程中,應使焊接施工造成的熱變形量限制在設計的規定范圍內,只有這樣才能確保以后的工作順利進行。

    2. 水冷系統的安裝和調試

      水冷系統是整個爐子裝置中的一個重要組成部分,它的安裝、調試的正確與否均影響到日后的爐子的正常運行。在安裝調試前,首先應檢查系統中的各種管道、軟管以及相應的接頭尺寸是否符合設計要求。進水管最好使用鍍鋅焊管,如使用普通焊制鋼管,則在組裝前應對管內壁進行酸洗,清除鐵銹和油污。管路中不需拆卸的接頭部分可用焊接方法連接,要求焊縫嚴密,試壓時不得有滲漏。管路中的可拆卸部分的接頭,其結構應能防止漏水,并便于維修。

      水冷系統安裝完畢要進行耐水壓試驗。其方法是水壓達到工作壓力的最高值,并保持十分鐘,所有焊縫及接頭處沒有滲漏即為合格。然后進行通水和排水的試驗,觀察感應器、水冷電纜等各冷卻水路的流量是否一致,并進行適當的調節,使之符合要求。

      備用水源及其切換系統均應在第一次試爐前施工完畢。

    3. 液壓系統的安裝和調試

      液壓驅動裝置應具有體積小、靈活輕便和控制操作方便等優點,多數坩堝式中頻爐均采用液壓傾動系統。油泵站的設計應考慮使用可靠和維修方便,設有多臺中頻爐的熔化工段,各爐子的液壓系統應能相互借用,以減少因維修液壓系統而被迫停產的時間。

      油泵站一般安裝在具有一定高度的基臺上,便于維修時從油箱內排油,同時利于安全生產,即使發生嚴重的漏爐事故也能保證油箱不受鐵液的侵襲。在安裝輸油管道時,也要從最壞的條件出發,任何時候都能避免和高溫鐵液相遇,防止事故擴大。

      消除液壓系統中的漏油是一件比較困難的工作,這一點首先從提高安裝質量著手。不需拆卸的輸油管路的接頭,最好采用焊接方法連接。焊縫應致密,不得有滲漏。焊后要清洗其內壁,不得留有焊渣和氧化皮。采用螺紋連接的輸油管路接頭,在結構上應考慮密封防漏。安裝時采用相應的輔助措施,如加防漏涂料等,減少運轉過程中產生漏油的可能性。

      液壓系統安裝完畢,應進行整個系統的耐試驗。其方法是通入1.5倍工作壓力的油,保持15分鐘,認真檢查每一個接頭、焊接及每一個元件的交界面,如有滲漏,應采取措施逐個消除。

      爐體、水冷系統、液壓系統安裝完畢后,應進行爐體傾動試驗,對爐子安裝質量進行總的檢查,如液壓控制系統是否靈活可靠,各動作是否正確;爐體、爐蓋的運轉是否正常;爐體傾轉到95°時,限位的行程開關是否起到保險作用,并調節液壓系統的壓力和流量,使其處于良好的工作狀態。傾爐的同時,要檢查水冷系統的活動接頭的安裝質量,不得漏水和妨礙爐體傾轉;要檢查液壓和水冷系統的軟管,在爐體傾動時觀察長度是否合適,必要時作適當的調整;要檢查排水系統在爐體傾斜時是否能正常工作,如發現不足之處,應采取相應措施。

    4. 電氣系統及感應器、磁軛的安裝和調試

      爐子的主電源進線、變壓器、電容器、電抗器、各種開關柜和控制柜、主母線、動力線和控制線路的安裝,均應參照國家工業企業電氣設計安裝的有關條例進行,特別要注意的是以下幾點:

      1)電氣設備間的所有控制線兩端均應標出端子號,便于檢查和維修。接線完成后要認真反復檢查,并試驗電氣動作,使所有電器及其連鎖裝置的動作準確無誤。

      2)感應器接通水前,要檢測感應器的絕緣電阻,并做耐壓試驗。若感應器已經通水,則需用壓縮空氣把水吹干后,再進行上述試驗。感應器應能承受2Un +1000伏(但不低于2000伏)的絕緣耐壓試驗1分鐘,而無閃絡和擊穿現象。Un為感應器的額定電壓。在高壓試驗時,電壓從1/2Un規定值開始,在10秒鐘內增加到最大值。

      感應器中感應線圈之間、感應線圈與地之間的絕緣電阻要滿足如下要求:額定電壓在1000伏以下者,用1000伏搖表,其絕緣電阻值不低于1兆歐;額定電壓1000伏以上者,用2500伏搖表,其絕緣電阻值1000歐。如發現絕緣電阻值低于上述值,應對感應器進行干燥處理,可借助于放在爐內的加熱器或吹熱風進行干燥。但此時應注意防止對絕緣有害的局過熱。

      3)磁軛頂緊螺絲是否牢固和擰緊。

      爐子在投入運行前必須先確認:所有聯鎖和信號系統完好,爐體傾轉至最大位置時傾限位開關作用可靠,電源、測量儀表和控制保護系統都處于正常狀態,然后進行筑爐、打結和燒結爐襯的試驗。

    How to install and debug the induction melting furnace ?

    1. Preparation before installation            

    Before installation, it is necessary to check whether all the components of the complete set of equipment, the main components of the furnace and the installation materials are complete, and check their condition. The defects of some parts and materials caused by improper transportation and storage should be repaired to ensure that all equipment, parts, corresponding materials and parts are intact to ensure the smooth progress of future installation and commissioning.

    In addition, the inspection and acceptance of various civil engineering facilities related to furnace equipment, such as checking whether the main dimensions in the layout are correct; checking whether the foundations, trenches and embedded parts required for the installation of various electrical equipment and main busbars conform to the design Requirements, whether the furnace foundation, platform elevation, deviation of the vertical and horizontal axes, and the position of the anchor screws are within the specified size range; check whether the construction quality of the base and platform meets the requirements. Only after the above preparations are completed, can the furnace be installed and debugged.

    2. Installation and commissioning of furnace and electrical equipment

    . Furnace installation  

    The installation procedures of the furnace body are specified on the drawings. The first is to install the furnace frame on the flat base, and then install the furnace oil tank and furnace body. If there is a weighing device, it should be installed in the specified position according to the requirements of the drawing. The furnace bracket (for the crucible induction melting furnace includes a fixed bracket and a movable bracket) and the furnace body part, during the processing the thermal deformation caused by the welding construction should be limited to the specified range of the design Only in this way can it be ensured Future work proceeded smoothly.

    . Installation and commissioning of water cooling system  

    The water-cooling system is an important part of the entire furnace device, and its installation and debugging will affect the normal operation of the furnace in the future. Before installation and commissioning, first check whether the various pipes, hoses and corresponding joint sizes in the system meet the design requirements. It is best to use galvanized welded pipe for the water inlet pipe. If ordinary welded steel pipe is used, the inner wall of the pipe should be pickled before assembling to remove rust and oil stains. The joints in the pipeline that do not need to be disassembled can be connected by welding, and the welding seam is required to be tight, and there should be no leakage during pressure test. The detachable part of the joint in the pipeline should be structured to prevent water leakage and facilitate maintenance.

    After the water cooling system is installed, a water pressure test is required. The method is that the water pressure reaches the highest value of the working pressure and keeps it for ten minutes. All welds and joints are qualified if there is no leakage at the joints. Then conduct water and drain tests to observe whether the flow rates of the sensors, water-cooled cables, and other cooling water channels are consistent, and make appropriate adjustments to make them meet the requirements.

    The backup water source and its switching system should be completed before the first test furnace.

    . Installation and commissioning of hydraulic system  

    The hydraulic drive device should have the advantages of small size, flexibility and lightness, and convenient control and operation. Most crucible induction melting furnace use hydraulic tilting systems. The design of the oil pump station should consider reliable use and convenient maintenance. There are melting sections with multiple induction melting furnaces . The hydraulic systems of each furnace should be able to borrow each other to reduce the time of forced shutdown due to maintenance of the hydraulic system.

    The oil pump station is generally installed on a base with a certain height, which is convenient for draining oil from the oil tank during maintenance, and at the same time, it is conducive to safe production. Even if a serious furnace leakage accident occurs, the oil tank can be protected from molten iron. When installing oil pipelines, we must also proceed from the worst conditions, avoid encountering high-temperature iron liquid at any time to prevent the expansion of the accident.

    Eliminating the oil leakage in the hydraulic system is a relatively difficult task. This starts with improving the installation quality. The joints of the oil pipeline that do not need to be disassembled should preferably be connected by welding. The weld should be dense and free of leakage. After welding, clean the inner wall without leaving welding slag and oxide scale. For oil pipeline joints with threaded connections, sealing and leak-proofing should be considered in the structure. When installing, adopt corresponding auxiliary measures, such as adding anti-leakage paint, to reduce the possibility of oil leakage during operation.

    After the hydraulic system is installed, the endurance test of the entire system should be carried out. The method is to pass in 1.5 times the working pressure of the oil, keep it for 15 minutes, carefully check every joint, welding and the interface of every component, if there is any leakage, measures should be taken to eliminate one by one.

    After the furnace body, water cooling system, and hydraulic system are installed, the furnace body tilting test should be carried out, and the overall inspection of the furnace installation quality, such as whether the hydraulic control system is flexible and reliable, whether each action is correct; whether the furnace body and furnace cover are operating normally ; When the furnace body is tilted to 95 °, whether the limit switch plays an insurance role, and adjusts the pressure and flow of the hydraulic system to make it in a good working condition. While tilting the furnace, check the installation quality of the movable joints of the water-cooling system. No water leaks or hinder the tilting of the furnace body; check the hoses of the hydraulic and water-cooling system, observe whether the length is appropriate when the furnace body is tilted, and make appropriate measures if necessary. Adjust; check whether the drainage system can work normally when the furnace body is tilted. If any deficiencies are found, corresponding measures should be taken.

    . Installation and debugging of electrical systems, inductors, and magnetic yokes  

    The installation of the main power supply line, transformers, capacitors, reactors, various switch cabinets and control cabinets, main bus bars, power lines and control lines of the furnace should be carried out in accordance with the relevant regulations of the national industrial enterprise electrical design and installation, and special attention should be paid Is the following:

    ) The terminal numbers should be marked on both ends of all control wires in the electrical equipment room to facilitate inspection and maintenance. After the wiring is completed, check repeatedly and test the electrical actions to ensure that the actions of all electrical appliances and their interlocking devices are correct.

    ) Before the sensor is connected to the water, the insulation resistance of the sensor should be tested and the withstand voltage test should be done. If the sensor has been watered, you need to use compressed air to dry the water, and then perform the above test. The inductor should be able to withstand an insulation withstand voltage test of 2U n +1000 volts (but not less than 2000 volts) for minute without flashover and breakdown. Un is the rated voltage of the inductor. During the high voltage test, the voltage starts from the specified value of 1/2U n and increases to the maximum value within 10 seconds.

    In the inductor, the insulation resistance between the induction coils and between the induction coil and the ground should meet the following requirements: For those with a rated voltage below 1000 volts, use a 1000 volt shaker, and the insulation resistance value should not be less than megohm; the rated voltage is 1000 For those above volts, use a 2500 volt meter with an insulation resistance of 1000 ohms. If the insulation resistance value is found to be lower than the above value, the inductor should be dried, which can be dried with the help of a heater placed in the furnace or blowing hot air. At this time, however, care should be taken to prevent local overheating that is harmful to the insulation.

    ) Whether the yoke top screw is firm and tightened.

    The furnace must be confirmed before it is put into operation: all interlocking and signal systems are intact, the tilt limit switch is reliable when the furnace body is tilted to the maximum position, and the power supply, measuring instruments and control and protection systems are in normal conditions, and then the furnace is built, Tests for knotting and sintering the lining.

     

     

     


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